Christian Persecution

The persecution of Christians is on the rise worldwide

In recent years, Christian persecution has peaked, and its terrible impacts have only begun to be felt. In fact, according to Pope Francis, conditions for Christians are worse now than they were in the days of the early Church.

The merciless targeting of Christians—driven by hatred of Christians and the faith itself—emerges as a common denominator in hundreds of testimonies of persecution received by Aid to the Church in Need (ACN) from countries around the world. As a Catholic charity providing emergency aid and pastoral support to the persecuted and suffering Church in 140 countries, ACN is committed to chronicling and assessing the evolving phenomenon of the persecution of Christians around the world today.

Christian Persecution Today

Today, according to ACN research almost 300 million Christians around the world—or 1 out of every 7—live in a country where they suffer some form of persecution, such as arbitrary arrest, violence, a full range of human rights violations and even murder. ACN is documenting this violation of religious freedom in two biennial reports, “Religious Freedom in the World” and “Persecuted & Forgotten?. The research examines conditions in 196 countries. Open Doors puts the number of Christians murdered for their faith in 2018 at more than 4,000 and reports that at least 11 Christians are killed every single day in the 50 worst-offending countries.

The most recent edition of “Persecuted & Forgotten?” covers the period 2017-2019 and finds a sharp rise in Christian persecution in South and East Asia.

It must be noted that some groups monitoring Christian persecution around the world put the number of Christians suffering various forms of persecution as high as 600 million; the Pew Research Center has reported that the number of countries where Christians are subject to a degree of government-enforced restrictions and communal hostility has grown from 108 in 2014 to 128 in 2015 and to 143 in 2017.

ACN’s most recent research shows that between June 2016 and June 2018 particularly grave violations of religious freedom took place in 38 countries, in 17 of which minority faiths—and Christianity figuring most prominently among them—suffered instances of severe discrimination; in 21 nations ACN found evidence of outright persecution, even to the point of death.
Radical, extremist Islam is responsible for the persecution of Christians in 22 of the worst-offending countries.

Thomas Heine-Geldern, executive president of ACN, said that “Pope Francis, as well as his immediate predecessors, have all stressed that religious freedom is a fundamental human right rooted in the dignity of man. It is the purpose of [these reports] to draw worldwide attention to this intrinsic link between religious freedom and human dignity.”

The precise number of Christians who are killed because of their faith remains unclear; reports showing a fall in the number of deaths during the period June 2015 to June 2017 to below 100,000 still show that the level of violence aimed at Christians remains severe.  The most recent mass killing of Christians happened in Sri Lanka, when, on Easter morning 2019,  some150 Christians died in strikes by suicide bombers at three churches.

ACN research is showing that Christian persecution is most sharply on the rise in South and East Asia, in countries like Myanmar, India, Pakistan, China and North Korea. That region is now the hot spot for persecution, taking over that dubious honor from the Middle East. Across Africa, jihadist violence against Christians remains at critical levels. For example,  ISIS affiliate Boko Haram has perpetrated genocidal attacks targeting Christians in northern Nigeria. In the last few years, the group has suffered significant military defeats and the loss of territory it held, but remains a danger to Christians. The focus is now on the attacks by Muslim Fulani herdsmen on Christian farmers in Nigeria’s Middle Belt, with many observers pointing at the herdsmen’s sophisticated weaponry as a sign the attackers have financial backing. Some speak of an effort to Islamicize the country.

Patterns of Christian persecution in worst-offending countries

In almost all the worst-offending countries, the situation for Christians has declined since 2015 as a result of violence and oppression. The one exception is Saudi Arabia, where the situation was already so bad it could hardly get any worse.

ISIS and other Islamist militant groups committed genocide in Syria and Iraq.

In Iraq, the exodus of Christians has continued to be very severe, but hope is on the horizon with communities returning to their homes on the Nineveh Plains.

This same exodus is threatening the survival of Christianity in parts of Syria, including Aleppo, formerly home to one of the largest Christian communities in the whole of the Middle East.

Governments in the West and the UN failed to offer Christians in countries such as Iraq and Syria the emergency help they needed as genocide perpetrated by ISIS got underway. If Christian organizations like ACN and other institutions had not filled the gap, the Christian presence could already have disappeared Iraq and other parts of the Middle East. However, war and terror continue to drive Christians out of the Middle East; by 2025, Christians are estimated to account for just over 3 percent of the Mideast’s population, compared to 4.2 percent in 2010. Iraq’s Christian population stood at some 1.5 million in 2003, on the eve of the US invasion; today that number stands at an estimated less than 300,000.

Half of Syria’s pre-civil war Christian population of 2.5 million has fled the country. Today more Arab Christians, some 20 million, live outside the Middle East than remain in the region, whose number stands at 15 million.

The defeat of ISIS and other Islamists in major strongholds of the Middle East offers the last hope of recovery for Christian groups threatened with extinction. Many would not survive another similar violent attack as the one in 2014 that drove 120,000 Christians out of northern Iraq. Happily, in the wake of the defeat of ISIS, some 40,000 Christians have returned to the Christian towns and villages of the Nineveh Plain. However, the situation on the ground remains fragile, with many communities still awaiting the full repair and restoration of infrastructure, against the backdrop of ongoing threats from Iran-backed Shiite militia and groups out to take control of Christian-owned land and property.

In the country’s Middle Belt, largely Muslim Fulani herdsmen have killed thousands of Christian farmers in recent years.

Some Church leaders charge there is local government and military collusion in the murder of Christians, as well as the funding and supply of sophisticated weaponry to the herdsmen. Several hundred Christian farmers were killed in the first half of 2019. Meanwhile, Islamic State West Africa Province is increasingly making its presence felt, posing another threat to the Church. Radical Islam, often with the support of Gulf States, is on the rise across sub-Saharan Africa.

Christians have suffered increased violence and oppression as a result of a rise in religious nationalism. In India, most notably, persecution has risen sharply since the 2014 rise to power of the right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. In the eyes of Hindu extremists and contrary to the country’s Constitution, India is a Hindu nation, with Christianity and Islam considered to be foreign imports detrimental to the country’s Hindu identity. Much of the anti-Christian rhetoric hinges on the suggestion that Christians are responsible for forced conversions. The number of attacks by Hindu extremists on Christians doubled in 2017, reaching 736, up from 358 in 2016. In 2017, 477 anti-Christians incidents were reported in India. By some accounts, there have been more thank 1,000 attacks on Christians in India, between the beginning of 2017 and the end of March 2019. In 2018, more than 100 churches closed, reportedly in response to extremist attacks or intervention by authorities.

In China, where President Xi Jinping has described Christianity as “a foreign infiltration,” increased hostility to Church communities, accused of resisting government control, has resulted in the widespread removal of crosses from churches and the destruction of church buildings. Recognizing the influence of religious practice on society, China’s leader has insisted on the need to “sinicize” religious life—i.e. make it authentically Chinese (for which one can read Communist)—and “automotize” it—i.e. free it from foreign control. Some regional authorities have banned Christmas trees and greetings cards. The accord reached in 2018 between Beijing and the Vatican with regard to the appointment of bishops—with bishops having been chosen by the regime accepted by Rome—has not fundamentally changed the situation for Christians in China.

In worst-offending North Korea—where the perception that religion provides a means of foreign infiltration is also reflected in the rhetoric used by the government—extreme cruelty in the treatment of Christians includes enforced starvation, forced abortion and reports of faithful being hung on crosses over a fire and others being crushed under a steamroller. A former North Korean security agent has been quoted as saying that Christianity is “persecuted because basically it is related to the United States … and is considered spying. Since Americans conveyed Christianity and since they are the ones who attempted to invade our country, those who are Christians are spies. Spies are executed.”

In Pakistan, discrimination of Christian minority is relentless, including denigrating references to the faith in government-sanctioned textbooks.Christians also suffer in the workplace, where they are largely relegated to menial jobs. The country’s anti-blasphemy law remains on the books and is often used as a tool to hurt Christians. The case of Asia Bibi—a Christian woman who spent eight years on death row, accused of allegedly insulting the Prophet of Islam—has brought the pernicious effect of the law to the fore. Fortunately, in the face of strong protests by radical Muslims who wanted to see her executed, the country’s Supreme Court has reversed Asia Bibi’s death sentence and set her free. In early May 2019, she was able to travel to Canada to be reunited with her family.

In Iran, there has been an escalation in anti-Christian sentiment in recent years, evident in negative media coverage and the proliferation of anti-Christian publications, visa refusal, targeted surveillance and intimidation tactics.

In Turkey, the state has seized numerous Church properties in recent times. There are indications of continuing intolerance of Christianity as evident in the Islamification of historic Christian sites, such as the Hagia Sophia.

In Saudi Arabia the public profession of Christianity is illegal, as are public Masses. There is tolerance of private worship by non-Muslims. Christian converts from Islam face the death penalty.

In Egypt, in at least four major attacks since 2016, well over a hundred Coptic Christians died at the hands of Islamist terrorists. Christians charge the government is not doing enough to protect them. Meanwhile, it remains extremely difficult to get official permission to construct new churches.

In Eritrea, there has been an increased government clampdown on Christians, with faithful who resist state control of their Churches ending up in prison under extremely harsh conditions. Many Christians are leaving the country.

Informing and educating the public about the persecution of Christians

Every day, in many places, Christians are suffering persecution because of their faith and many victims of persecutions are left with no choice but to flee for their lives. Yet, despite the gravity of the situation, the extent of this persecution is largely ignored by mainstream media.

At a time in the West when there is increasing media focus on the rights of people regardless of gender, ethnicity or sexuality – to name but a few – it is ironic that in many sections of the mainstream media throughout the West, there should be such limited coverage of the massive persecution experienced by so many Christians. This lack of coverage combined with inaction on the part of Western governments in the face of widespread persecution of Christians points at a cultural divide; on the one hand, in the West, there is an ignorance and a lack of concern about religious freedom violations, and on the other, in Africa, Asia and other parts of the world, questions of religion are central and paramount. 

So marked is this divide that we can conclude that there is a barrier of indifference, a cultural curtain, behind which the suffering of entire communities of Christians and other religious minority groups goes largely unnoticed. And although Western governments have begun to pay more attention to violations of religious freedom around the world, the international community has yet to bring demonstrable change for many of the Christians suffering persecution.

Hence, with notable exceptions, religious illiteracy and apathy blinds the West from the surge in ultra-nationalist violence and repression—in India, Turkey, Russia and elsewhere—which is being perpetrated against Christians and other minority faith groups. This blinkered indifference does not extend to racial, cultural, or gender matters, only to religion.

Aid to the Church in Need calls for the suffering of ignored Christian and other religious minorities to be recognized, insisting that US and Western governments take concrete action be to defend the rights of persecuted Christians.

ACN is committed to finding out and publicizing the truth about persecuted Christians today. Drawing on fact-finding trips, first-hand testimonies and facts and figures from little-known corners of the world, ACN research reveals the faces of persecution. Persecuted Christians are desperate to make their voices heard.

ACN annually funds hundreds of humanitarian and pastoral projects to support the suffering and persecuted Church. Worldwide, the organizations donors pledge upwards of $100M each year.

Father Werenfried van Straaten, the founder of ACN once said: “Our persecuted brothers and sisters are the elite of the Church. To show solidarity with them is a matter of honor.”


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