The persecution of Christians is on the rise worldwide
In recent years, Christian persecution has peaked, and its terrible impacts have only begun to be felt. In fact, according to Pope Francis, conditions for Christians are worse now than they were in the days of the early Church.
The merciless targeting of Christians—driven by hatred of Christians and the faith itself—emerges as a common denominator in hundreds of testimonies of persecution received by Aid to the Church in Need (ACN) from countries around the world. As a Catholic charity providing emergency aid and pastoral support to the persecuted and suffering Church in 140 countries, ACN is committed to chronicling and assessing the evolving phenomenon of the persecution of Christians around the world today.
Christian Persecution Today
Today, according to ACN research almost 300 million Christians around the world—or 1 out of every 7—live in a country where they suffer some form of persecution, such as arbitrary arrest, violence, a full range of human rights violations and even murder. ACN is documenting this violation of religious freedom in two biennial reports, “Religious Freedom in the World” and “Persecuted & Forgotten?”. The research examines conditions in 196 countries.
The most recent edition of “Persecuted & Forgotten?” covers the period 2015-2017 and finds that at least 75 percent of all religiously-motivated violence and oppression is suffered by Christians.
It must be noted that some groups monitoring Christian persecution around the world put the number of Christians suffering various forms of persecution as high as 600 million; the Pew Research Center has reported that the number of countries where Christians are subject to a degree of government-enforced restrictions and communal hostility has grown from 108 in 2014 to 128 in 2015 and to 143 in 2017.
Thomas Heine-Geldern, executive president of ACN, said that “Pope Francis, as well as his immediate predecessors, have all stressed that religious freedom is a fundamental human right rooted in the dignity of man. It is the purpose of [these reports] to draw worldwide attention to this intrinsic link between religious freedom and human dignity.”
Patterns of Christian persecution in worst-offending countries
ISIS and other Islamist militant groups committed genocide in Syria and Iraq.
In Iraq, the exodus of Christians has continued to be very severe, but hope is on the horizon with communities returning to their homes on the Nineveh Plains.
This same exodus is threatening the survival of Christianity in parts of Syria, including Aleppo, formerly home to one of the largest Christian communities in the whole of the Middle East.
Governments in the West and the UN failed to offer Christians in countries such as Iraq and Syria the emergency help they needed as genocide perpetrated by ISIS got underway. If Christian organizations like ACN and other institutions had not filled the gap, the Christian presence could already have disappeared Iraq and other parts of the Middle East. However, war and terror continue to drive Christians out of the Middle East; by 2025, Christians are estimated to account for just over 3 percent of the Mideast’s population, compared to 4.2 percent in 2010. Iraq’s Christian population stood at some 1.5 million in 2003, on the eve of the US invasion; today that number stands at an estimated less than 300,000.
Half of Syria’s pre-civil war Christian population of 2.5 million has fled the country. Today more Arab Christians, some 20 million, live outside the Middle East than remain in the region, whose number stands at 15 million.
The defeat of ISIS and other Islamists in major strongholds of the Middle East offers the last hope of recovery for Christian groups threatened with extinction. Many would not survive another similar violent attack as the one in 2014 that drove 120,000 Christians out of northern Iraq. Happily, in the wake of the defeat of ISIS, some 40,000 Christians have returned to the Christian towns and villages of the Nineveh Plain. However, the situation on the ground remains fragile, with many communities still awaiting the full repair and restoration of infrastructure, against the backdrop of ongoing threats from Iran-backed Shiite militia and groups out to take control of Christian-owned land and property.
ISIS affiliate Boko Haram has perpetrated genocidal attacks targeting Christians in northern Nigeria. In the last few years, the group has suffered significant military defeats and the loss of territory it held, but remains a danger to Christians.
Some Church leaders charge there is local government and military collusion in the murder of Christians, as well as the funding and supply of sophisticated weaponry to the herdsmen. Several hundred Christian farmers were killed in the first half of 2019. Meanwhile, Islamic State West Africa Province is increasingly making its presence felt, posing another threat to the Church. Radical Islam, often with the support of Gulf States, is on the rise across sub-Saharan Africa.
Christians have suffered increased violence and oppression as a result of a rise in religious nationalism. In India, most notably, persecution has risen sharply since the 2014 rise to power of the right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. In the eyes of Hindu extremists and contrary to the country’s Constitution, India is a Hindu nation, with Christianity and Islam considered to be foreign imports detrimental to the country’s Hindu identity. Much of the anti-Christian rhetoric hinges on the suggestion that Christians are responsible for forced conversions. The number of attacks by Hindu extremists on Christians doubled in 2017, reaching 736, up from 358 in 2016. The tally for 2018 is expected to significantly exceed the number of incidents recorded in the previous year.
In China, where President Xi Jinping has described Christianity as “a foreign infiltration,” increased hostility to Church communities, accused of resisting government control, has resulted in the widespread removal of crosses from churches and the destruction of church buildings. Recognizing the influence of religious practice on society, China’s leader has insisted on the need to “sinicize” religious life—i.e. make it authentically Chinese (for which one can read Communist)—and “automotize” it—i.e. free it from foreign control. Some regional authorities have banned Christmas trees and greetings cards. The accord reached in 2018 between Beijing and the Vatican with regard to the appointment of bishops—with bishops having been chosen by the regime accepted by Rome—has not fundamentally changed the situation for Christians in China.
In worst-offending North Korea—where the perception that religion provides a means of foreign infiltration is also reflected in the rhetoric used by the government—extreme cruelty in the treatment of Christians includes enforced starvation, forced abortion and reports of faithful being hung on crosses over a fire and others being crushed under a steamroller. A former North Korean security agent has been quoted as saying that Christianity is “persecuted because basically it is related to the United States … and is considered spying. Since Americans conveyed Christianity and since they are the ones who attempted to invade our country, those who are Christians are spies. Spies are executed.”
In Pakistan, discrimination of Christian minority is relentless, including denigrating references to the faith in government-sanctioned textbooks.Christians also suffer in the workplace, where they are largely relegated to menial jobs. The country’s anti-blasphemy law remains on the books and is often used as a tool to hurt Christians. The case of Asia Bibi—a Christian woman who spent eight years on death row, accused of allegedly insulting the Prophet of Islam—has brought the pernicious effect of the law to the fore. Fortunately, in the face of strong protests by radical Muslims who wanted to see her executed, the country’s Supreme Court has reversed Asia Bibi’s death sentence and set her free. In early May 2019, she was able to travel to Canada to be reunited with her family.
In Iran, there has been an escalation in anti-Christian sentiment in recent years, evident in negative media coverage and the proliferation of anti-Christian publications, visa refusal, targeted surveillance and intimidation tactics.
In Turkey, the state has seized numerous Church properties in recent times. There are indications of continuing intolerance of Christianity as evident in the Islamification of historic Christian sites, such as the Hagia Sophia.
In Saudi Arabia the public profession of Christianity is illegal, as are public Masses. There is tolerance of private worship by non-Muslims. Christian converts from Islam face the death penalty.
In Egypt, in at least four major attacks since 2016, well over a hundred Coptic Christians died at the hands of Islamist terrorists. Christians charge the government is not doing enough to protect them. Meanwhile, it remains extremely difficult to get official permission to construct new churches.
Informing and educating the public about the persecution of Christians
Every day, in many places, Christians are suffering persecution because of their faith and many victims of persecutions are left with no choice but to flee for their lives. Yet, despite the gravity of the situation, the extent of this persecution is largely ignored by mainstream media.
ACN annually funds hundreds of humanitarian and pastoral projects to support the suffering and persecuted Church. Worldwide, the organizations donors pledge upwards of $100M each year.